What do we mean by autonomy? The dictionary defines autonomy as being “self-governing, independent.” But autonomy means more than independence in the sense of being able to take care of yourself physically. Self-governing implies being able to take responsibility for yourself and for your own behavior. The dictionary definition includes the phrase, “subject to its own laws.” Intended as a reference to independent nations, this idea could be applied to children, particularly at certain points in their development. It is just at the point that children decide they should be subject to their own laws that conflict can develop between parents and children. Parents often express concern about changes in their children’s behavior. Sweet, lovable children seem to turn overnight into willful, defiant little people. These children, usually 2-year-old’s who had been easy to raise and manage, seemed all at once to have arrived at a point of asserting their own likes and dislikes, their own ideas of what they wanted to do and didn’t want to do, and their disinterest in their parent’s agenda. In short, they had decided they should be subject to their own laws, not their parents’ wishes. This mysterious behavior is the behavior of emerging autonomy. All the children’s endowments, both innate and acquired through experience, have come together to produce the assertion of self that often is expressed as defiance of parents. As the butt of such expression - while struggling with the difficulties caused in simple day-to-day routines by our children’s resistance to our wishes and refusal to cooperate - we may see this as negative behavior to be nipped in the bud. Actually, there is a positive side to this emerging autonomy. Children’s increasing language skills, perception, memory, intelligence and mobility are all operating now to help them gain mastery of their environment. The potential for such mastery has been there from birth. Infant research in recent years has shown how even newborns with little capacity for mobility exercise preferences with regard to sensations they seek and perceptions they form. Able to turn their heads from side to side they will turn to mother’s voice in preference to some other voice. They also prefer a human voice over other sounds. Observing in an infant program, I watched as a mom put her baby down in one spot and then went to hang up her coat. Like a shot, the baby took off crawling toward her mom. But it was not her mom she was after. She had spotted mom’s tote bag on the floor and began pulling things out seeming to be looking for something she knew was in there. Toddlers find pleasure in accomplishing simple tasks, such as throwing their paper juice cups into a waste basket. Two-year-old’s love to help the teachers put blocks away, or make choices about activities. Developing language skills play a big role in helping children gain mastery of their environment and pleasure in the feeling of mastery. An important part of growing up is finding a balance between one’s own desires and the need to respond to the expectations of parents and then others. In this process children test out their own voices and assert their own wills. The kind of response they get can help determine how confident they will come to feel in their own point of view, their own values and their own ideals. Children talk back in the process of learning to speak up. Our challenge as parents is to help our children express themselves, support their emerging autonomy, yet learn to operate within parental and social boundaries. Elaine Heffner, LCSW, Ed.D., has written for Parents Magazine, Fox.com, Redbook, Disney online and PBS Parents, as well as other publications. She has appeared on PBS, ABC, Fox TV and other networks. Dr. Heffner is the author of “Goodenoughmothering: The Best of the Blog,” as well as “Mothering: The Emotional Experience of Motherhood after Freud and Feminism.” She is a psychotherapist and parent educator in private practice, as well as a senior lecturer of education in psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College. Dr. Heffner was a co-founder and served as director of the Nursery School Treatment Center at Payne Whitney Clinic, New York Hospital. And she blogs at goodenoughmothering.com.